python爬虫---requests库的用法

it2022-05-06  0

requests是python实现的简单易用的HTTP库,使用起来比urllib简洁很多

因为是第三方库,所以使用前需要cmd安装

pip install requests

安装完成后import一下,正常则说明可以开始使用了。

基本用法:

requests.get()用于请求目标网站,类型是一个HTTPresponse类型

import requests response = requests.get('http://www.baidu.com')print(response.status_code) # 打印状态码print(response.url) # 打印请求urlprint(response.headers) # 打印头信息print(response.cookies) # 打印cookie信息 print(response.text) #以文本形式打印网页源码print(response.content) #以字节流形式打印

运行结果:

状态码:200

url:www.baidu.com

headers信息

 

 

 各种请求方式:

import requests requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get') requests.post('http://httpbin.org/post') requests.put('http://httpbin.org/put') requests.delete('http://httpbin.org/delete') requests.head('http://httpbin.org/get') requests.options('http://httpbin.org/get')

 

基本的get请求

import requests response = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get') print(response.text)

结果

 

 

 

带参数的GET请求:

第一种直接将参数放在url内

import requests response = requests.get(http://httpbin.org/get?name=gemey&age=22) print(response.text)

结果

另一种先将参数填写在dict中,发起请求时params参数指定为dict

import requests data = { 'name': 'tom', 'age': 20 } response = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get', params=data) print(response.text)

结果同上

 

解析json

import requests response = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get') print(response.text) print(response.json()) #response.json()方法同json.loads(response.text) print(type(response.json()))

结果

 

简单保存一个二进制文件

二进制内容为response.content

import requests response = requests.get('http://img.ivsky.com/img/tupian/pre/201708/30/kekeersitao-002.jpg') b = response.content with open('F://fengjing.jpg','wb') as f: f.write(b)

 

为你的请求添加头信息

import requests heads = {}heads['User-Agent'] = 'Mozilla/5.0 ' \ '(Macintosh; U; Intel Mac OS X 10_6_8; en-us) AppleWebKit/534.50 ' \ '(KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1 Safari/534.50' response = requests.get('http://www.baidu.com',headers=headers)

 

使用代理

同添加headers方法,代理参数也要是一个dict

这里使用requests库爬取了IP代理网站的IP与端口和类型

因为是免费的,使用的代理地址很快就失效了。

import requests import re def get_html(url): proxy = { 'http': '120.25.253.234:812', 'https' '163.125.222.244:8123' } heads = {} heads['User-Agent'] = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/49.0.2623.221 Safari/537.36 SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0' req = requests.get(url, headers=heads,proxies=proxy) html = req.text return html def get_ipport(html): regex = r'<td data-title="IP">(.+)</td>' iplist = re.findall(regex, html) regex2 = '<td data-title="PORT">(.+)</td>' portlist = re.findall(regex2, html) regex3 = r'<td data-title="类型">(.+)</td>' typelist = re.findall(regex3, html) sumray = [] for i in iplist: for p in portlist: for t in typelist: pass pass a = t+','+i + ':' + p sumray.append(a) print('高匿代理') print(sumray) if __name__ == '__main__': url = 'http://www.kuaidaili.com/free/' get_ipport(get_html(url))

结果:

 

 

基本POST请求:

import requests data = {'name':'tom','age':'22'} response = requests.post('http://httpbin.org/post', data=data)

 

 获取cookie

#获取cookie import requests response = requests.get('http://www.baidu.com') print(response.cookies) print(type(response.cookies)) for k,v in response.cookies.items(): print(k+':'+v)

结果:

 

 

会话维持

import requests session = requests.Session() session.get('http://httpbin.org/cookies/set/number/12345') response = session.get('http://httpbin.org/cookies') print(response.text)

结果:

 

证书验证设置

import requests from requests.packages import urllib3 urllib3.disable_warnings() #从urllib3中消除警告 response = requests.get('https://www.12306.cn',verify=False) #证书验证设为FALSE print(response.status_code)打印结果:200

 

超时异常捕获

import requests from requests.exceptions import ReadTimeout try: res = requests.get('http://httpbin.org', timeout=0.1) print(res.status_code) except ReadTimeout: print(timeout)

 

异常处理

在你不确定会发生什么错误时,尽量使用try...except来捕获异常

所有的requests exception:

Exceptions

import requests from requests.exceptions import ReadTimeout,HTTPError,RequestException try: response = requests.get('http://www.baidu.com',timeout=0.5) print(response.status_code) except ReadTimeout: print('timeout') except HTTPError: print('httperror') except RequestException: print('reqerror')

 

 

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/mzc1997/p/7813801.html


最新回复(0)